What is energy from a quantum standpoint
Question: what is energy? at first glance, it seems not serious. Well, who doesn't know what energy is? The Akademik website interprets energy as follows:
“ Energy (ancient Greek.ενεργεια -" action, activity, force, power ") - scalar physical quantity, which is a single measure of various forms of motion and interaction of matter, a measure of the transition of the motion of matter from one form to another ”.
If in this case there are some ambiguities for you, then the explanation of the concept of energy from a slightly different point of view may become clearer for you:
“From a fundamental point of view, energy is an integral of motion (that is, a quantity conserved during motion), associated, according to Noether's theorem, with the homogeneity of time” .
Yes, this is more understandable: energy is not represented by some physical quantity, but by an integral, and even not by any integral, but related precisely to the homogeneity of time, as the respected Noether told about. Well, of course, in those places where time slows down, becomes less dense, or accelerates, becomes more compressed, and then you look altogether bends, as the no less respected scientist Einstein told us about this, there is no energy there or it is somehow not like that ... Choose who you like. Further science tells what forms of energy are. Something like this:
Types of energy:
7. Chemical potential
8. Explosion energy
Each of these types of energy can be converted into one or more other types of energy. A grenade flies through the window, broke the glass due to its kinetic energy, and this energy turned partially into mechanical (another kinetic - the fragments flew) and changed the chemical potential of the glass. And there you see it exploded and got the energy of the explosion. And so with all types of energy. This means that in all these forms there must be, as mathematicians say, a certain invariant, that is, something that is inherent in all forms of energy and it remains unchanged in all forms.
What is the invariant of oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, barrels, buckets, bottles and the like? Water, or rather a water molecule. This is the invariant. It remains unchanged no matter what form the water takes or even the state of aggregation. As soon as water, so is its molecule, otherwise a quantum of water. And so with everything in the world, with everything, up to humanity. As soon as a party, a club, a gang and the like, so a person is a quantum of humanity. The same thing happens with energy.
But a quantum of energy is not a molecule of something, not an atom, not an ion, not a Jeffson junction, not a piece of some field, etc., but a unique natural structure made up of electric and magnetic fields, which has the ability to move independently ... It was the pieces of the corresponding sizes of magnetic and electric fields of both polarities in the form of rotating vortices that created a special quality: movement . Other sizes of vortices are not capable of organizing a moving structure. This self-propelled structure is the quantum of energy. This is nothing more than a neutrino . Only quantum and is capable of getting the job done. Any field alone cannot do the job. It is static. Any amount of energy can be collected from quanta in the form photons .
These quanta are the invariant of all types of energy. All forms of energy are aggregate states of energy. Like water, or even any element, it can be in a gaseous state, liquid or solid. Likewise, energy quanta are condensed in the form of electrons and protons. Everything that we observe in nature in the form of bosons, hadrons and other types of particles is a condensed amount of this or that type of quanta (there are only 8 of them). Some of these particles are stable, while others are not stable and disintegrate into smaller groups (particles) at one rate or another.
There is a weight on the table. It contains, or rather it consists, a certain amount of quanta of certain types. In electrons, these are electromagnetic negative quanta of one or another polarization, more precisely, photons. In protons, these are electromagnetic positive photons of one polarization or another. Some of these photons serve the atoms and nuclei themselves. They, together with static magnetic and electric fields, hold the entire weight together. All these photons make up potential energy weights. If the number of photons is not added to the weight and photons do not leave it, then this is a closed system.
Of course, getting a closed system is very difficult. For example, neutrino and relict fluxes, gravitational photons, we call them gravitons, thermal photons and, probably, a lot of other things pass through the weight. Gravitons try to pull the weight down all the time, but the electronic field of the table is pushing the weight up all the time. If we remove the table, the gravitons will transfer energy to the electrons and pull the weight down. The weight will accelerate, the acceleration will force its electrons to emit some part of the quanta, and the weight will acquire a new speed, which will increase the kinetic energy of the weight. So part of the potential energy is converted into the corresponding amount of kinetic energy. Radiated energy when accelerating electrons in the form of photons is directly an electromagnetic form of energy.
Gravitational energy is the same photons, but not yet visible to us. They do not fit into the visible spectrum, and so far we cannot transform them into the visible spectrum, like thermal photons, X-rays and others. They are felt only by the vestibular apparatus.
Nuclear energy is also represented by the number of photons in the nucleons themselves and the exchange photons between them. The exchange photon was called a pion, it is 300 times more energy than an electron, and therefore nuclear forces are much greater than all other forces.
Internal energy and chemical potential is the same process of accumulation or loss of the number of photons in the system. All chemical reactions with catalysts, with enzymes, without them, and so on, go with the absorption or emission of certain photons. For example, reactions take place with the absorption or release of heat, light and other types of radiation and absorption. But of course, the total energy of a system depends on the number of quanta in it, the number of which depends on the speed of all elements of the system, their location in some potential fields, their mutual combination, as in chemical bonds, and the like.
Explosion energy is the same chemical reaction, only fast. The laser process takes place in it. It happens even in a simple fire, but slow. According to the assumption of our first inventors of the maser, Prokhorov and Basov, in the laser process, the overpopulation of a certain level occurs due to the transition of electrons to this level from other levels without the participation of energy, which cannot be. In fact, the pumping photon in the atom knocks out an exchange photon from the atom, approximately the same energy as itself, without being absorbed. Then these two photons are doubled again. And an avalanche of photons is formed. This avalanche of photons catalyzes the explosion reaction. But the catalyzing photon knocks out the exchange one not in every atom. In explosives, there are more atoms supporting the multiplication of photons than in the branches of a tree, so there we get an explosion, and there it is normal combustion.
In all transformations with a quantum, nothing happens and their number in closed systems is constant according to energy conservation law .
In conclusion, I will add. If you manage to completely evaporate the weight that is on the table, that is, unfold into the corresponding photons and put them into the power grid and use, then your electric meter would count the amount of electricity for you, exactly equal to E = mc 2 sup >. Convert it to kilowatts yourself.