Electron is the most mentioned particle of matter. Its presence has been verified many times in various ways. Its parameters were measured and rechecked. It would seem that we know everything about him.
But to our surprise, we know nothing or almost nothing about the structure of the electron. There are still disputes over whether the electron is divide or not. When you type in a search engine the query: the device of the electron, you will get many articles, but very little specifically about the structure of the electron. Without exception, all the luminaries of science mainly talk about the mass, charge, spin, the behavior of the electron (for example, Feynman talks about the behavior of the electron near the slits How to track an electron? ) and stuff like that.
Essentially, I found two articles. One of them is mathematical. When solving a certain wave function, we got the following picture:
Strange as it may seem, but the picture somewhat resembles the true (each has its own truth, I also have) picture of the electron device. The rings rotate around the center in opposite directions. But what these rings are made of, why they rotate, how these rings are used by nature, and the like, mathematics does not explain this. Her job is to say - this is the shape of the electron, but she is not interested in how it fits into the causal chain of nature.
The second article is more informative, although derived from the not entirely scientific book "Urantia". I quote from prompatent.ru Electron device. Is its charge elementary? :
Consider the structure of the electron. Definition of it as an indivisible elementary particle, less than which does not exist in nature, apparently, is inappropriate. Returning to the phrase that “the electron is as inexhaustible as the atom”, we find confirmation of this in the book “Urantia”, translated into Russian in 1997. The electron is not an elementary particle, but consists of smaller formations of ultimatons. By definition, ultimatons are the original physical units of material existence, particles of energy from which electrons are formed. In other words, ultimatons are the smallest particles that can be conventionally called “micro quanta” of energy. What is known about ultimatons? Ultimatons are held within the electron by mutual attraction. In an ordinary (known to science) electron, there are always no more and no less than a hundred ultimatons.
From what has been stated above, let's try to define an ultimaton for ourselves as a micro energetic closed vortex with magnetic properties, which under certain conditions can carry a micro elementary electric charge. In other words, the elementary amount of micro energy contained in the ultimaton is in fact the smallest elementary electric charge, less than which does not exist in nature.
If in this quote the word ultimaton is replaced by the word photon, then this is almost a normal description of the electron structure.
The first article contains a description of the form, but no internal content. The second article has content, but no form. True, I may be wrong here and there is a description in the book. I have not read the book, but only part of it from the Internet.
I will try to present the electron model in a more complete form: with form, content and the ensuing consequences from the given form and content, that is, to build an electron into the life of nature.
You entered a dark room where you can't see anything, and you turned on the light bulb by touch. The room became light, light appeared. Where did he come from? From a light bulb, more precisely from a thin tungsten thread in a light bulb. Why did he appear? Because an electric current has passed through the thread. This is what scientists say and it is obvious to everyone.
But further problems. What is light? Do we see the light or is it because of it we see? What we see thanks to the light is beyond doubt. Indeed, while there was no light in the room, we saw nothing, light appeared, and everything became visible. But the light itself, or rather the bearer of light, we do not see directly. This can only be represented indirectly through signs. If in a lighted room I see a table, then it is obvious that something has reached or flew from the table to my eyes, and I saw it. Scientists interpret it as follows. The light from the bulb hit the table, bounced off the table and hit my eyes. There is something, but in what form does it (light) exist in form and content? Scientists argue. Some say it is a wave, others say that it is a corpuscle (particle), and still others say that it is a wave and a particle at the same time.
And you look at an illuminated crack in the glass, some rounded surface of a car under the sun, something else reflecting or at a weak LED at night and you will see that light from these objects radiates out in the form of torn rays, as if, thin needles of various lengths fly from these objects.
These rays are the paths of the light. These are indirect signs of the presence of light. These are not the particles of light themselves, called photons, but the air molecules illuminated by them, falling in the path of the photon. Air in these cases is a kind of Wilson's chamber. From the fact that these beams are needle-like, intermittent and of various lengths, we can conclude that photons are corpuscles. Now, if the needles were of the same length and formed a circle, then a wave would turn out. That is, light can be organized into a wave in the form of radiation, but the photon itself is not a wave, although it is itself generated by wave, or rather vortex, movements of electric and magnetic fields. All this is described in articles "Quantum, what it consists of" и "Quantum of energy, how it arranget and how it moves".
And so the photon is the very ultimaton that carries light energy in this case. We know that this photon came from a filament in a light bulb. And where did it come from in the filament? Maybe he was in filament? Science answers these questions as follows. The accelerated electron emits a photon. The voltage at the ends of the filament makes the electrons move and emit photons. And since thermal movements are also superimposed on the movement of electrons from voltage, photons of different energies are emitted: red, blue, yellow, etc.
This means that the photon supplied us with an electron. Where did the electron get this photon? There are only two ways here: either to relay someone else's photon, that is, to absorb this photon, then emit it, or to give it out from oneself, and then replenish oneself. In the first case, photons are taken from the generator, and in the generator they are born from electrons accelerated, for example, by mechanical rotation. There is nothing to relay. While the light bulb is off, a potential is created at its ends, everything is in balance. As soon as the light bulb was turned on, the potential immediately set in motion the electrons, and they began to emit photons. How are photons stored in an electron?
Since, according to my proposed model of a photon, its energy does not depend on frequency, but on the number of quanta, the smallest particles that carry energy, the photon is represented as a thread of a certain length, composed from quanta . Today we can say in the form of a string.
I will not guess yet how the first ring was formed, or rather the electron core. I'll take the N ring and show how the next N1 ring is formed.
The N layer can be the first layer or some intermediate one. It is shown inside the figures. This layer (photon) consists of 16 quanta. Each quantum consists of a negative electric vortex (green circle), a negative magnetic vortex (blue), a positive electric vortex (yellow), and a positive magnetic vortex (red).
A folded photon consists of three sublayers, as it were. The outer sublayer is formed by negative electric vortices, which creates a negative electric field around the electron. In the middle sublayer, magnetic vortices of both polarities move. They compress (condense) the photon by their attraction. And the third sublayer is formed by positive electric vortices. They are attracted to the negative previous sublayer, increasing the force of condensation.
The entire photon moves along the indicated arrow.
Consider what happens if a photon hits an electron.
Let's take an example from the venerable scientist R. Feynman. He wrote in his famous book QED - a strange theory of light and matter. :
The main task of my lectures is to describe as accurately as possible the strange theory of the interaction of light and matter, or, more precisely, the interaction of light and electrons.
It will take a long time to explain everything I want.
And then he took and wrote a thick book in which he explained that the interaction of light and electron is a probabilistic process, either about interacting or not. Straight from the anecdote. The woman is asked - what is the probability that, leaving the house, she will meet a dinosaur? The answer is fifty-fifty. Surprise - how so? And again the answer is either a meeting or not.
These photons of various lengths are folded into rings (layers), forming the structure shown in the figures in states 1-15.
And so, along line 1, a photon, consisting of 3 quanta, moves to the electron. The quanta in the photon are the same as those contained in the electron. The first vortex of a photon is negative electric. State 1. Around the electron there is a negative electric potential, which turns the negative electric vortex back. But since the upper potential of the electron rotates clockwise with the photon, the vortex of the incident photon will be reflected at some angle, that is, its vortex will move in the same direction as the rotating potential, moving away along the radius.
In addition to the repulsive force acting on the green vortex, the magnetic positive (red) element induced by the green vortex is affected by the Kaufman force, deflecting it tangentially to the electron and removing the red element from the electron. As a result, the green vortex will move from position 1 to position 2.
The unfolded vortex will drag the remaining vortices along with it, and at position 1 there will be a magnetic negative vortex. State 2.
The Kaufman forces will push the blue vortex to the electron, but they cannot overcome the forces that drive the green and blue vortices away from the electron. The next moment they will be at positions 3 and 2, respectively. And at position 1 there will be a positive electric vortex (yellow). State 3.
The yellow positive vortex is attracted to the negative field of the electron, but this force is not enough to keep the three vortices near the electron, for the reason that the Kaufman forces, pressing the blue vortex to the electron, have weakened, and they are removed at positions 4, 3 and 2 . State 4.
Since these processes involve the forces created not only by the main vortices, but also the forces created by the induced elements, the equilibrium state will come when the green, blue and yellow vortices are in positions 5, 4 and 3, respectively. This structure, like a float in water, will move in the field of an electron. State 5.
Further, the second quantum will begin to be absorbed in the same way as the first, in the first quantum the magnetic positive (red), under the influence of the Kaufman forces, will move to position 4, the remaining vortices of the first quantum will move along the electron orbit without changing positions. The first quantum has completed the absorption procedure. The green vortex of the second quantum will move to position 1. State 6.
Then the second and third quanta will be absorbed in the same way and under the influence of the same forces as the first quantum. States 7-14. When the third quantum is absorbed, the system will be in state 15. And here options for the behavior of the system are possible.
1. The most obvious one. If in the layer N1 the photon can close on itself, that is, a certain number of quanta can fit in such a way that the first reflected quantum will reach the last reflected quantum, then the photon will close into the layer and will rotate just like the previous layer. This photon turned out to be resonant for the electron, and he absorbed it. And such an absorbed photon is firmly held on to the electron mainly due to two such phenomena. In the middle sublayer, the magnetic forces pull the photon into a hoop without breaking. And the negative field of the electron pulls the photon for the positive electric vortex towards itself.
2. The photon turned out to be shorter than the resonant one. In this case, a non-closed photon will not be retained on the electron and will be emitted. The photon will be relayed. How does this happen? It turns out that in the process of absorbing a photon, subsequent quanta help to retain the previous ones. Perhaps the tail of the previous quantum (red vortex) is sandwiched between two blue vortices, which the last quantum is deprived of in the first case.
The photon, whatever it may be, will always be completely absorbed, otherwise nothing would happen in nature, and there would be no us. The fact is that the electron does not know which photon is interacting with it in this case. He cannot solve the resonant photon, which he must absorb, go to the next level and form a chemical bond, or this photon should simply be relayed. Therefore, all photons are absorbed to the end, the electron is presented with a fact and what is possible happens. And what is possible if the photon is shorter than the resonant one? Radiation only. How does this happen?
The initial quantum cannot be detached from the electron, because it does not know whether the entire photon has been absorbed or not. The last quantum comes off first, there is no subsequent quantum behind it, and it cannot be held by an electron. The folded photon, also in clock cycles, will begin to unfold into a straight chain. And the detached photon will begin to move at the speed of light and in a straight line. We observe all this on a prism with dispersion. This breaks the beam. Moreover, the longer the photon, the more it keeps on the electron. During this time, the electron will rotate through a larger angle and then release this photon. In red light, photons are shorter than in green and therefore they change their trajectory less than green ones.
And the third case
3. The incident photon is longer than the resonant one. In this case, the photon will be wound all the way to the end, increasing the number of layers until the last photon quantum is absorbed. And since the last absorbed quantum did not adhere to the first, the crushing rest of the photon did not allow it to do this with the intermediate quantum, then the radiation procedure will begin further, as in the case of a short photon. The photons do not press each other with their sides, and indeed do not interact in any way. They are added and subtracted only on an electron or other particle. Only the end and the beginning of quanta interact with each other. Where you are now sitting and reading this, in every volume of space there are many photons: light, heat, radio waves, television, relict, gravitational, inertial, etc. And they pass through each other, or not interacting to each other.
Since photons are of different lengths, their absorption time plus the emission time will be different. And each photon will be emitted from a different point of the electron. One photon will fly straight, another to the side, the third back, etc. This is confirmed by the Thompson scatter diagram.
In dynamics, these processes are presented approximately as shown in the video "Electron, its device"
We know that photons exist in two polarizations. In my photon model, there are also two polarizations: in one the vortices rotate clockwise, and in the other counterclockwise. Each electron can resonantly absorb and emit only photons of one polarization corresponding to its spin.
If a photon of a different polarization comes to the electron shown in the figures, it will be reflected in the other direction and will move opposite to the previous layer When the negative electric vortex (green) rotates in the opposite direction in front of it, not a positive magnetic element (red) will be generated (induced), but a blue element will be generated, and a red magnetic vortex will follow the green vortex. In this case, the quantum has the following structure. Picture 2
A photon with such quanta will not be absorbed at all. Kaufman's forces will work not to keep the quantum in the composition of the electron, but to reject it. Nature will not even try a resonant photon or not? All the same, no photon of other polarization will be absorbed by an electron of opposite polarization. This is a well-known chirality.
How many layers can there be in an electron? How is the N1 layer different from the N layer? Are there quanta of slightly different shapes in the layers, or can there be different numbers of quanta in the layers? It is clear that in each subsequent layer there cannot be more quanta, or even equal, than in the previous layer. If this were not so, then the electron would increase to infinity. The electron is finite, which means that the number of quanta in each layer should decrease. How does this happen?
The reflected quantum tries to move at an angle .phi; to the incident photon, as shown in Figure 4.
It is clear that the longer the layer circumference, the more quanta will be located on it. On the other hand, the larger the tilt angle, the fewer quanta will pack on a given circumference. Unfortunately, nobody knows the real size of the quantum. I only believe that a quantum contains a strictly defined amount of energy substrate and that it is this amount that has the property of independent movement. And I can assume that electric and magnetic vortices are capable of deforming, like air, water, dust and any other vortices. While maintaining their mass, they can increase and decrease in diameter and length, while maintaining their density, or make the same changes, increasing and decreasing their density. These deformations depend on the magnitude of the field strength in the layers and between the layers. The combination of all these factors leads to the fact that there will be fewer photons in the N1 layer than in the N layer. And so with each layer.
In the limit, there may be only 1 quantum in the last layer, which will close on itself. This can happen only in the case of a complete stop of the motion of the electron relative to the vacuum. This state of the electron is very unstable. It is enough to apply a minimum force to the electron, and it will emit this quantum. True, it is not difficult to emit the next pair of quanta. Since we, one way or another, move, then we live on the hump of the radiation curve of an absolutely black body, mainly emitting and absorbing photons of green, yellow and other photons close to this.
In addition to electrons, there are also particles in nature such as positrons. Their existence has been proven theoretically and confirmed experimentally. The proposed model of the structure of an electron is suitable for the structure of a positron. On top of the positron there will be positive electric vortices (yellow) and the positron will have a positive electric field, which can be detected in the experiment.
The possibilities of nature are not exhausted on this. Other combinations of vortices in a quantum are also possible. There are four more. A magnetic vortex of one or another polarization can move ahead, and they can be of two polarities. In these cases, these quanta appear in torsion fields. There are many generators of such fields. But it is quite rare to record the presence of monopoles and, as usual, this manifests itself in some inexplicable phenomena. Well, I guess it's just a matter of time. Sooner or later, but the magnetic single pole particles will be found. They are also packed like an electron, only the top will have a magnetic field of one polarity or another.
It is not known whether there is a core inside the electron from anything and if there is, what size it is, because it determines the length of the first photon, or is there a void? In general, the origin of the electron is as much a mystery as the origin of life.
And what is the thickness of the layers? If the vortices are plastic, then it is possible that the inner layers are thicker than the outer ones, and the electron takes the form of a flying saucer.
This model can explain many other phenomena.
For example, the spin of an electron. The movement of the layers of photons is nothing more than an electric current. And, as you know, the flow of current generates magnetic fields. As a result, we have one magnetic pole on one side of the disk and an opposite magnetic pole on the other side. If the particles were packed from magnetoelectric photons, then there would be electric charges at the poles. In such a world, it would be difficult to find a unipolar charge. They will be paired, like we have magnets.
Such a model can offer a variant of gravitational interaction. You don't need to deform space-time for this. Only understandable forces work. Figure 5.
The reflected quantum turned out to be, to the right of the line of motion (a) of the photon, not as a result of independent movement, but thanks to the forces of Kaufman Fk and the movement of the electric field of the electron, that is, the interaction of electric and the magnetic fields of the electron and the vortices of the quantum. They practically pushed the electron and quantum apart, giving them opposite impulses.
The reflected quantum rushes into a new path with its own light speed. And he would fly off on a new route, but an insidious negative electric field grabbed his positive electric vortex and stopped him. The quantum transferred all its impulse of force Fc to the electron. We will split this impulse into two components Fg and Fе .
The force Fе is directed to the right, since the quantum did not repulse the electron with its impulse, but pulled it along. It turned out like this. The impulse of the Kaufman force turned the electron counterclockwise, and the momentum of the quantum force - clockwise. Whether they compensated for each other's actions, I don't know, but it doesn't matter yet.
But the second component Fg is of interest to us. It can be viewed as a gravitational force. Of course, an advanced reader can say that this force compensates for the momentum Fд that the photon creates as pressure. It drives the electron down. So, the impulse of force Fg neutralizes the effect of the impulse of force Fd . This is true, only one must take into account that the pressure impulse is created by the kinetic energy of the photon, and the gravitational impulse is created by the internal energy of the quantum. The speed of the entire photon is limited by the speed of light, and the speed of the induced elements is much greater than the speed of light. And there is a suspicion that the internal energy is much greater than the kinetic energy of even a very long photon. A projectile in the form of a simple blank can move a sheet of armor in the direction of its movement, and a cumulative projectile can push a sheet of armor not only forward, but also make the sheet fly against the movement of the projectile. And this backward impulse can be significantly greater than the impulse from kinetic motion.
An electron, having received such a pulse, will move by inertia in the direction of the radiation source of this photon. If an electron is bound in an atom, then it will drag the atom along with it, and with it the entire molecule. And do not be confused by the fact that some small photon is pulling a large molecule with it. These photons rotate huge motors, move trains, melt large volumes of metal, etc.
The simplest words to explain gravity are as follows. Everyone knows how a rocket flies. In the combustion chamber, the fuel is burned into gas. Gas molecules are pushed in different directions. If the molecules are repulsed, then they fly in different directions. For example, molecules pushing apart in the plane perpendicular to the movement of the rocket scatter to the side walls of the combustion chamber, creating pressure on them. When pushed in the plane of the direction of movement of the rocket, one molecule flies to the front wall of the chamber, presses on it, creating the required thrust. And the second molecule flies out through the nozzle. If the nozzle were closed, then this second molecule would give its momentum to the overlap, which would compensate for the momentum of the first molecule. The rocket would not have moved anywhere. But if there were no second molecule with a closed nozzle, then the rocket would fly, as with the second molecule with an open nozzle.
And we know that a quantum moves independently and does not need to make a start from anything. Therefore, as soon as it turns around, it rushes with the speed of light from the electron. But since it is associated with the electron by electric and magnetic forces, it drags the entire electron along with it. This is the gravitational force. There is no other in nature.
Gravity plays a very important role in the structure of living matter. In a cell, molecules move towards each other precisely because of this force. Adenine emits photons that are resonant for thymine. And no matter how these molecules are located in the cell, they will eventually unite, despite various obstacles in the form of collisions. Timin, having absorbed a resonant photon from adenine, will move towards him. If an obstacle is encountered on the path of thymine, it will change its speed, conditionally become stationary, as in the beginning, as a result of which it will emit the received resonant photon. The inertial motion will cease, but again the thymine electron will be ready to receive the next resonant photon and continue the path. So thymine, pushing and bypassing everything in its path, will make its way to adenine. And thymine, under the influence of mitochondria and various catalysts (primase, polymerases, etc.), will generate and generate these photons (this is its individual light) until thymine moves closer to it and enters into a chemical bond with it. Scientists call this process “recognition” of one molecule by another.
Unfortunately, none of them even knows about the processes taking place. The most they can say is that the molecules are moving towards each other due to thermal shocks. As soon as the egg is fertilized, it will turn out to be alive at a certain time. And if you hope for heat movement, you will get nothing, especially on time. Thermal movements can push one molecule to another, another with the same probability can push away from our molecule, and push the third molecule so that a deficiency of such molecules is revealed.
And one more thing. Only by understanding how the electron is structured and how photons are stored in it can you really build a quantum computer A photon is a qubit. And it carries not a probabilistic unit of information, as in a superposition, but a physical one in the form of an electromagnetic field, which we can read, write, receive and process. What do you want to do with the probabilistic qubit?
The conclusion from what has been told can be done like this.
If you do not believe that the electron device presented in this article is more or less close to the truth, then do not believe it. And if you believe that the structure of the electron is more accurately and more clearly described by the equation then believe. But try, based on this equation, to explain at least the refractive index.