Gyroscopic forces in quantum light
Gyroscopic forces are as incomprehensible to modern science as inertial forces or gravitational forces. But if they try to find approaches to gravitational forces in the form of gravitons, which is true, or curvature of space-time, which has nothing to do with this phenomenon, then there is no approach at all to inertial forces or gyroscopic forces. Somewhere in the distance a field and the Higgs boson dreamed, but everything drowns on the bottom in a bottle of champagne.
For this reason, here is what they write about gyroscopic forces on all possible sites:
Gyroscopic forces - mechanical forces that depend on the position and speed of the material point to which they are applied, and are always directed perpendicular to this speed.
Gyroscopic forces are forces that depend on velocities and have the property that the sum of their work (or powers) for any displacement of the system on which these forces act is equal to zero.
The "Physical Encyclopedia" and millions of other articles also describe gyroscopic forces.
This seems to be an exhaustive description of these forces, we all know about them, calculate them and use the results of calculations in practice. But Dzhanibekov's nut appears, and significant efforts of the scientific community are required to comprehend this phenomenon. Of course, it could have happened that Dzhanibekov might not have discovered this phenomenon, and we would have lived quietly and not thought about the revolution of the Earth. True, even if we know everything about the overturn of the Earth, we will not be able to do anything about this phenomenon, but it would be desirable to somehow prepare for this cataclysm. I will try to give these forces a physical meaning, that is, point to a physical object that creates these forces, like a lever that turns a stone.
Consider the behavior of the top in various states.
1. A non-rotating top in zero gravity will maintain its position indefinitely. On Earth, the position of the top standing on the axis of rotation is unstable. The slightest displacement of the axis of rotation Оа of the top from the vertical axis Оо leads to the fact that part 2 (relative to the vertical plane) the top becomes heavier than part 1 and the top falls. What physical processes occur in this case in the happen
Gravitational action F2 part 2 more than gravitational action F 1 to part 1 and the whirligig falls in the direction of greater force.
2. Let the whirligig rotate around the axis Оо . At a certain speed of rotation, the top stops falling and acquires a stable state, from which it is impossible to get it out, even if the axis of the top is deviated to the position Oa from the axis of rotation.
The question is: why does it not fall with the same deviation? The classic answer: it doesn't fall because the moment of rotation is conserved. And why and by what forces is the moment of rotation preserved? Why, for example, at 10 rpm, this moment of rotation is not maintained and the top falls, and at 1000 rpm, this same top retains the moment of rotation so that it is difficult to knock it down? After all, when the force F deflects the axis of the top from the axis of rotation, then the force F2 will be greater than the force F1. What will compensate for the strength of F2 - F1? This is a physical quantity (difference of forces), this is gravity. It must be compensated for by some kind of physical strength.
And how can gyroscopic forces compensate for this force if their resultant is equal to zero? And they even confirm this with supposedly clever formulas:
But still: why doesn't the whirligig fall? Let's look at Fig. 4.
The disc rotates around the axis Z . Let's act on the point а of the disc with the force F , which will give this point some acceleration. Let the pulse Ft be short in relation to the speed of rotation of the disk, that is, during the action of this pulse, the disk rotates through an insignificant angle. This force will tend to rotate the disk around the axis X , arrow 1.
Electron points а , having received acceleration, must emit inertial photon . And we know that it takes a certain time for a photon to emit . The more energy a photon is emitted, the longer it is emitted. While the photon is being emitted, nothing happens. Everything freezes or moves by inertia.
In our case, while the inertial photon is in the process of generation, the disk rotates around the Z axis and around the X axis , with the speed of the force imparted by the impulse F .
During the generation of a photon, the point a of the disk will shift to the position б , where an inertial photon will be emitted Fи. And as we see from the figure, this impulse will not only resist the force А , which is trying to overturn the disk around the axis X , but he himself will tend to rotate the disk around the axis Y along arrow 2. The greater the force F , the greater the acceleration of the point a , the more powerful the photon is generated and the longer it is generated. As a result of a longer generation time, the shoulder of the moment ab increases. The feedback turns out to be negative and therefore the system is stable. Naturally, the higher the rotation speed, the more stable the system.
It can be concluded that the top does not fall due to the presence of inertial photons .
Let us remind you once again that these are not some special photons, but those that we observe in the form of all kinds of radiation, including in the form of torsion fields. Obviously, all these types of radiation have a spectrum that strongly coincides with the spectrum of a black body.
A spinning disc is the simplest gyroscope. The ratio of the inertial force, the disturbing force and the way this force is applied can lead to various types of gyroscope behavior.
If you untwist the top with a sharp support and place it on a flat table at an angle, the tilted whirligig will not fall on the table, but will start rotating around the vertical axis with a certain angular velocity (Fig. 5).
Weight strength Fg, as in the case of strength F ( Fig. 4), will tend to overturn the top. At some point, it will give acceleration to the electrons of the top and make them emit inertial photons, which in total will create the force of inertia Fи , which will always turn out to be more power Fg if the top has not fallen. Later we will see what will happen if these two forces are compared.
But these forces of inertia, due to the delay in the generation of photons, leave the plane of the drawing and try to unfold the top in the plane perpendicular to the plane of the drawing. But the pivot point of the top is motionless and the axis of the top rotates relative to the pivot point in the direction of arrow 2 (Fig. 6).
The axis of the top begins to move, describing the lateral line of the cone. This movement of the gyroscope is called precession . Calculations, which can be found in any textbook, show that the precession rate in the first approximation is described by the formula:
As you can see, from the formula it follows that the higher the gyroscope rotation speed, the lower the precession speed. And according to our reasoning (Figure 6) it follows that the higher the rotation speed, the more powerful inertial photon is generated. Consequently, a greater moment appeared for the gyroscope rotation about the axis Y, which should lead to an increase in the precession speed.
Indeed, at the peripheral speed of the disk v1d and the speed of the gyroscope tilt vg, the disk tilts towards us, the resulting velocity will be V1, which generates a photon of force F1и. This force will tend to rotate the top along arrow 2 around the axis Y. This force represents the force of precession. If the peripheral speed of the disk is greater, for example, v2d, then an inertial photon of higher power must be generated, which will create a higher force of precession F1и. This will be true if the speed vг is the same.
Formula and experience show that speed decreases. But there is no contradiction here. As the speed of rotation of the gyroscope increases, it becomes lighter, i.e. the mg value decreases. This means that, although the inertial impulses become larger, their number is further reduced. Therefore, this result is obtained. In general, all this must be considered, but I do not know how to do it.
We have seen that the equilibrium position of the gyroscope is dynamic. As soon as some force tries to take him out of equilibrium, he emits inertial photons, which return him to his previous state. The forces of gravity are constantly trying to upset the equilibrium state, so the axis of the gyroscope “trembles” all the time. This is practically unnoticeable "jitter" in the steady state. When the gyroscope is started or under some disturbance, the “jitter” becomes noticeable and is called nutation .
The sharper we put the spinning gyroscope on the support at an angle, the more the center of gravity of the gyroscope will drop from the equilibrium plane (the axis of the gyroscope will be located on the line Oa1), in which will move the center of gravity in equilibrium (the axis will be located along the line Oa) (Fig. 7).
Impulse of force Fg+ma will provoke the generation of an inertial photon of force Fи, which will raise the center of gravity of the gyroscope. And since this force of inertia is greater than the force required for an equilibrium state, the axis of the gyroscope will be on the line Oa2. Then the gyroscope axis will again move in the direction of the line Oa1. The forces of friction in the support and air resistance will reduce the ma component, which will lead to a fading of the oscillations caused by a sharp setting of the gyroscope, but the “jitter” of the gyroscope axis due to nutations will remain.
In the article Internet "Lecture 11. Gyroscopes" there is such a picture (Fig. 8) with a description.
“The nature of the trajectory along which the top of the gyroscope moves depends on the initial conditions. In the case of Fig. 96, and the gyroscope was spun around the axis of symmetry, mounted on a support at a certain angle to the vertical, and carefully released. In the case of Fig. 96, b, in addition, he was given a certain push forward, and in the case of Fig. 96, c - push back along the precession ".
As you can see, there is some force that makes the gyroscope axis move along such intricate lines. This force is not a frictional force, for further it is said:
“If nutations are damped by friction in the support faster than the rotation of the gyroscope around the axis of symmetry (as a rule, this is the case), then soon after the“ start ”of the gyroscope, nutations disappear and pure precession remains” .
So, if there were no friction forces, then nutations would not disappear. Some force would be added to the motion of the gyroscope, and it would move in the manner shown in Figure 8. What are these forces and how do they work? Rice. 9.
Above, we considered that the inertial impulse caused by gravity F and, rotating the gyroscope disk around the axis X, makes it return to its previous position (preserves the angular momentum), and rotates it around the Y axis, which makes the gyroscope precess. The gravity impulse F causes the generation of an inertial photon Fun , the impulse of which does not coincide , due to the delay in its generation, with an impulse of gravity. For this reason, the above two points arise.
Next to the electron that emitted a photon of force Fun and gave acceleration to the disk, there are many other electrons that will emit other inertial photons of the corresponding strength Fиn. Moreover, these forces will be shifted relative to each other by bw. Fиn forms two moments that will contribute to the organization of the gyroscope movement. These inertial photons are the force responsible for nutation.
Ratio of nutation forces Fиn and precession forces Fun creates some form of nutation. The magnitude of these forces depends on the acceleration of the disk, and they partially depend on the initial conditions of motion.
It would seem: why does a person break into an open door? Draws pictures, tries to tell something. Indeed, in the same lecture 11, scientists described all the movements of the gyroscope with strict mathematical formulas, they explained everything. It seems that not all. The question is: will our Earth spin like Jenibekov's nut? - remained open.