The biggest thing that humanity has figured out, as it seems to him, is the electromagnetic field. A person understands somewhat less in an electric field, and even less in a magnetic field. And in the knowledge of the gravitational field, there is still little success, although there are a lot of models of gravitational processes. But things may not be that difficult.
What is gravity in modern science?
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia says:
“Gravitation, gravity, gravitational interaction, universal interaction between any kind of matter. If this interaction is relatively weak and the bodies move slowly (in comparison with the speed of light), then Newton's law of universal gravitation is valid. In general, T. is described by the general theory of relativity created by A. Einstein.”
Gravity or the law of universal gravitation was discovered by Isaac Newton. More precisely, not that he discovered this law from scratch, but somehow streamlined it and described it with mathematics. Humanity knew about gravitation before it. Quite a few cannonballs and other objects were thrown from the tower to determine which bodies the earth attracts faster. But it seemed to be some kind of local phenomenon: here is the earth, here is the core, and it is attracted by the earth.
At the same time, scientists already knew about the motion of the planets and knew that the moon revolves around the earth and does not fly away from it, because it is attracted by the earth. These forces were considered special.
And Newton, maybe in truth, having seen the moon and a falling apple, realized that in both cases the same forces act. He combined in his brain a group of neurotransmitters that reproduce the process of falling an apple, a group of neurotransmitters that reproduce the process of the movement of the moon, into one group. That is, he committed an act of thinking. It all happened in his brain.
Moreover, he described it all with mathematics. And, as they write on the Internet, this is what happened:
Within the framework of classical mechanics, gravitational interaction is described by Newton's law of universal gravitation, which states that the force of gravitational attraction between two material points of mass m1 and m2 , separated by the distance r , is proportional to both masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance - that is:
Undoubtedly, the formula of universal gravitation is correct, but imagine what happens to the force of interaction if r tends to zero? So maybe this is nuclear forces or strong interaction? So the gravitational interaction smoothly turns into a strong interaction.
And one more phenomenon is hidden in this formula. Each of these bodies forms or emits “something” that is evenly distributed around the body in a certain amount, and therefore the farther from the body, the less this “something” falls on a unit area of the sphere and, accordingly, on the second body. Of course, we can say that this is the potential of the gravitational field or, more to the point, gravitons. But no one can say what a graviton is.
There are a lot of gravity models, I counted 14 pieces, I didn't look any further. It is clear that 14 truths about the same phenomenon cannot be. There can be as many false theories as you like, but there can be only one truth.
Among these models is the model created in the general theory of relativity by A. Einstein.
Why is there such a hassle with gravity? Let's see how (this “something”) gravitating bodies can interact.
1. The first, and probably the most widespread opinion, is that bodies interact through the gravitational field. But here any ignoramus will put any sage in a dead end. Experience shows that only bodies with different fields can be attracted. For example, electrically charged balls with negative fields will repel rather than attract. The same is with positively charged balls. And only if one ball is positively charged and the other negative, then they will be attracted. Magnetic fields behave the same way. And we do not know more fields. The electromagnetic field is like a wheat or hemp field.
So if we want the earth to attract the moon or an apple, then we must admit that gravity is positive and negative. But modern science does not even ask this question.
2. Second, the interaction is carried out through gravitational waves. In the second decade of the 21st century, great noise was raised in the scientific world. LIGO interferometers have detected gravitational waves coming from two colliding black holes. This is another confirmation of the general theory of relativity. Then the noise died down and nothing interesting happened. And what could have happened if these LIGOs have such a wonderful property: for billions of billions they feel gravitational waves, but the nearby sun emits some frail gravitational waves that these masterpieces of science do not feel. While a large number of meteorological people feel the changes in our luminary on their own skin.
But what is still outlandish is that very few people understand - how can a wave attract a body to itself? Well, she can shake any body, carry a surfer on her, drag a bottle with a note somewhere, but even then this is mainly due to the winds, and how she can attract something is not clear.
3. Third, the interaction is carried out using gravitons, that is, some kind of particles. But this is also a dead end for scientists.
4. Why did Einstein come up with such a complex construction as general relativity, and did not stop at a quantum or graviton particle? Most likely, he could not imagine how a particle flying to the body could transmit its impulse to it in the opposite direction? Couldn't she fly around this body and push it from the other side? For some reason, it was not possible to come up with a particle that would pull the body onto itself. Perhaps he did not know that the same particle can fly anywhere and return back to the required place (Jung's experiment), but now many venerable scientists know this. They could have expanded the concept of gravity by saying that gravity is created by backward flying particles. You look, we would have added crowned heads.
The thought that the body is being pushed by certain forces from the outside requires accepting the theory of ether. None of this is acceptable to Einstein. It took of a curved plane along which the body would roll to the desired body. And if the bodies are the same, then they should build potential hole, at some intermediate point between them. Nothing can build these potential holes by bending space-time, except the bodies themselves. Einstein showed how bodies bend space-time with the following formula:
This is the connection between the mass of bodies and the curvature of space. Somewhere changed the mass, immediately there changes the curvature of space-time.
This is very clearly represented in three-dimensional space, if you put any body on a trampoline or on some stretched cloth. A pit is formed, into which the bodies that find themselves on this slope and could not to form the hole depth enough to hold on to the slope will really slide down its slope. But the fact is that even on a slope, the body will not roll if there is no corresponding force or the forces are balanced. In a spaceship, all space-time is aligned to the absence of any curvature. It turns out that some phenomena distort space-time, while others straighten it. It's even a shame for our space-time: they crumple it like a rag.
There is one more spicy thing. Look: here somewhere a body appeared in space-time and curved it to the appropriate curvature, and suddenly one of the coordinates began to change and not somewhere in infinity, but right there under the body. stretched What do you think - will the curvature of space-time change or not? Maybe I'm wrong, but it seems to me that it will be. Naturally, the spatial coordinate itself will not change this way, while the time coordinate changes continuously. The question is: will this change in time (the time coordinate is equal among others) harm our curvature, in fact, gravity.
What is the way out of this incomprehensible impasse. As Richard Feynman said - we have nothing but electrons and photons. This is what I will proceed from.
In this article, I will introduce the quantum model of gravity. The acting force in this is the photons, the model of which is presented in the article ”Photon” .
First, let's remember what we know about reactive movement. In a slightly different way, reactive movement is called variable mass motion. The closest thing to us is a rocket, which, ejecting burning fuel from itself, moves in the opposite direction from the ejected particles of combustion products. The mass of the entire system (rocket + fuel) changes in this case. There are many possible examples of such jet propulsion, both natural (cuttlefish, etc.) and man-made.
But there is another type of jet propulsion, which mankind has not yet mastered, although it was known about it much earlier than it was known Meshchersky and Tsiolkovsky. For example, science fiction writers have offered a variety of means to achieve this goal. In the 17th century, the story of the French writer Cyrano de Bergerac about the flight to the moon appeared. The hero of this story got to the moon in an iron cart, over which he constantly tossed a strong magnet. Pulling towards him, the wagon rose higher and higher above the Earth until it reached the moon. The man understood that the magnet would pull the cart to itself. But he did not know that by throwing a magnet in the direction of the moon, he pushes the wagon away from the moon. Now, if a magnet were thrown, or rather, put in not by our hero, but by someone else from the side, then the magnets would set the cart in motion, even if the cart was loaded with magnets. The magnets could be reused by ejecting the opposite of their arrival and so, creating a reactive force like a rocket.
Is it possible, at least theoretically, to model jet propulsion to increase (attach) the mass of the system? Let's see some examples.
First. Take a small metal ball (let the experiment take place in zero gravity, where there are no friction forces, air resistance, etc.) and shoot an arrow at it. If the impact of the arrow is absolutely elastic, then the arrow will transfer the impulse of movement to the ball. The arrow will lose a certain speed, and the ball will gain some additional speed. In the case when the impact is absolutely inelastic, i.e. the kinetic energy of the arrow will turn into other types of energy, for example, into heat or energy by restructuring the ball, let’s say punching a hole in the ball, then in this case the ball may not move at all (if it was in such a state).
In general, there can be quite a lot of situations, all of them are known and very simply described by mathematics. And now imagine that the arrow is not ordinary, but dynamic, its surface layer moves in the direction from the tip to the plumage, and vice versa inside. Fig. 3.
In this case, during an inelastic collision, when the arrow pierces the object, it may happen that when the outer layer of the arrow and the object interacts, the object will receive a movement impulse opposite to the momentum of the arrow. The object will be pulled by the arrow against the flight of the arrow. The kinetic energy of the arrow can be completely spent on the processes in the ball, and the energy of motion of the upper layer of the arrow can be converted into kinetic energy of the ball for reverse motion. A lot of arrows and will create a jet thrust of the second type - with an increase in mass.
Second model. Let a certain thread be made in the ball and it is not an arrow that strikes it, but a rotating corkscrew or a screw. Fig. 4.
Depending on the direction of rotation, these elements interacting with the body, can move the object either forward or backward. The rotational energy of the screw can be converted into kinetic energy of the ball. With a certain selection of the mass of the screw and the speed of its rotation, you can make it stop in the ball and move with it. Or you can leave a little energy to the screw so that it can go through the ball, freeing the thread for the next screw.
If you take an ordinary roulette measure and pull out the tape, put the roulette on a plane without friction or place it in zero gravity, and then release the tape, it will begin to be drawn in by the roulette, and the roulette will begin to move in the direction opposite to the movement of the tape. The greater the mass of the tape, the greater the speed the roulette measure will acquire. In general, this is a completely simulated situation.
Craftsmen can come up with many other models of jet propulsion. A strict scientist is unlikely to stoop to such a worthless trifle, and a craftsman does not care about anything.
Everything would be very clear if we could stop a screw or an arrow in a ball. Within the limits of classical mechanics, the impulse of the rotational motion of the screw is distributed between the impulse of the ball and the impulse of the screw, and as soon as the screw stops, then, due to the fact that it has acquired an additional impulse of translational movement, it will begin to move the ball back. As a result, the ball will first move against the movement of the screw, and then will move in the direction of movement of the screw.
If the screw passes through the ball, then the ball will move against the movement of the screw. Ordinary mechanics does not allow us to convert all the rotational energy of the screw into the translational energy of the ball and anything else. But the more rotational energy from the translational kinetic energy of the screw, the more backward momentum the ball will receive.
The above examples show only that the reverse movement can be organized. But the photon is not a screw. He cannot change his momentum, if this could happen with the screw, then there would be no problems. A photon can give its impulse to an electron entirely. If a photon is not resonant for a given state of an electron, then it will be absorbed, by electron, as a result of which the photon will give it its direct impulse, but will immediately be retransmitted and take its impulse back.
And if a photon turns out to be resonant for a given state of an electron, then it is quite possible that its translational impulse through rotational movements will change its sign. That is, a part of the rotational energy of the photon will be spent on imparting a reverse motion to the body, and some of this energy will go to extinguish the forward impulse of the photon and impart a reverse impulse together with the body.
How such an inversion occurs, I tried, as best I could, to explain in the article “Electron device.”
The conclusion from what has been said is as follows: gravity is the resonant absorption of photons of the corresponding power, called gravitons . Unfortunately, we are not yet able to register and consciously generate such photons. Unconsciously, by changing the speed of the body, we destroy the resonant pairs, but this does not go further.
And I will also express such a seditious thought. For example, the builders of pyramids and other megalithic objects could generate streams of photons that change gravity and / or streams of photons, weakening or increasing interatomic bonds in some substances, such as granite.